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Sports Injuries

Participating in games eliminates stress and promotes relaxation & flows positive energy and gives feel of entertainment and enjoyment. No Sports is without injuries. While playing sports and physical activity injuries are quite common irrespective of your experience to the sports. But most injuries can be managed effectively and timely by the physiotherapist. Physiotherapist by prescribing exercises & treatment helps player recover faster and return safely into the sports quickly.

What causes injury?

Mostly by direct impact or an indirect force like fall and twisting movement or a force which is more than the body part , it may be

1. Acute :- happens suddenly

2. Chronic:- develops gradually over a period of time due to overuse & repetitive strain of muscle groups or joints.

Injury Prevention Strategies

Warm up exercise like walking jogging and stretching prior to game.

Appropriate Game specific foot wear

Increase water intake during or after the sports

Wear protective braces and straps

Maintain good muscle flexibility , strength & endurance.

Regular medical & injury check ups

After any sports spend some time to cool down and stretching

Wear protective braces and straps

How physiotherapist can help?

Physiotherapist are qualified and highly trained professionals in assessing and treating sports injury. They treat by means of scientifically designed exercises to maintain, and restores body functions and movements. Physiotherapist hold good knowledge of biomechanics of the body which promotes , tissue repair and prevent sports injury so that you can return safely into your game.

First aids after injuries

Suggestions for treatment immediately after injury for up to 72 hours , to prevent further damage

1. Rest :- keep the injured area in resting position and support with the braces and straps.

2. Ice :- apply ice on injured area for 20 minutes and on one point for 5 to 6 minutes only

3. than change to another point.

4. Compression :- use elastic bandage over the area.

5. Elevation :- keep the injured area elevated above your heart level.

6. No heat

7. No massage

8. No stretching

Sciatica

Do you know not all back pain is Sciatica?

Sciatica is the compression of the largest nerve in the body ,the sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve begins from the lower lumber and travels down in the legs either one side or both side and it mostly occurs in between the age of 18 to 40 years.

Irritation of the sciatic nerve can cause lower back pain which radiates in the lower limb including weakness. Numbness or sometimes tingling sensation.

Sciatic nerve pain:-

Often characterized by one or more of the following symptoms

1. Constant , shooting pain radiating in buttocks, posterior thigh and down in the leg and foot unilaterally or bilaterally.

1. Pain intensity increased in sitting position.

2. Patients always complains of weakness and some times numbness and tingling sensation in the affected leg.

3. Sharp , burning pain which make it difficult to stand up and walk

Causes of sciatica

1. Bulging , prolapsed, herniated or a ruptured disc which compresses the sciatic nerve.

2. Degenerative disc disease due to normal aging process.

3. Improper technique for lifting heavy weights.

4. Physical trauma.

5. Sudden twist or jerky movements.

6. Spinal misalignment.

7. Any pathology.

8. Tight piriformis muscle.

9. Bulging , prolapsed, herniated or a ruptured disc which compresses the sciatic nerve.

Physiotherapy treatment

Physiotherapy plays an important role in sciatica treatment and a physiotherapist can design a treatment protocol in combination of thermotherapy, electrotherapy, spinal manipulation and myofascial release according to the severity of the pain. Physiotherapist is very well trained who can advice you about your posture and can look for any muscle imbalances in the body .

Physiotherapy treatment for sciatica divided in to parts

Pain management.Thermotherapy-hot and cold pack to reduce inflammation and muscle spasm. Electrotherapy- TENS and IFT using a modified current to stimulate the peripheral nerves and sensory nerve ending. The stimulation caused by electrotherapy helps brain to release more endorphins to over ride the sciatic pain Ultrasound- sound waves with thermal effects that penetrates deep into the tissue to increase circulation and to promote healing process. Spinal manipulation- spinal manipulation corrects ant misalignment the spinal Colum producing pain . MFR- myofascial release specialized manual technique to correct the muscle imbalances.

Strengthening program- specialized exercise protocol design by your therapist including stretching exercise and strengthening exercise will help you recover faster and prevent you for further problems.

Prevention

1. Walking- slow walking is important to exchange the nutrition for the disc and to avoid muscle weakness. Posture- improve your posture don’t sit regularly more than 20 to 30 minutes take break and stretch your body.

2. Weight lifting- while lifting heavy weight always bend your hip and knee and hold the object close to your body.

3. Water intake- increase water intake to hydrate the disc and for batter drainage. Sleeping- use firm mattress and thin pillow to maintain the spinal curves.

Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder also called adhesive capsulitis is a condition characterized by pain , stiffness ant limited range of motion in shoulder joint.

Most commonly affects one side and people between 40 to 60 years age group and more likely in women than man. With frozen shoulder joint capsule becomes thick, tight and loss of synovial fluid makes the movement more restricted.

Symptoms

The main symptoms of frozen shoulder are severe to dull ache pain in shoulder, stiffness ,difficulty in moving hand or doing overhead activity and pain gets worse at night which disturb sleep.

Frozen shoulder typically goes in three phases and each phases has its own unique symptoms.

1. Freezing Phase- severe pain in the shoulder gets worse over time may hurt more at night and shoulder movement becomes limited.

2. Frozen Phase- severe painful symptoms improves but stiffness remains or gets worse. Shoulder movement restricted and difficulty in performing daily living activity

Knee Pain

Knee pain is a most common problem. It can be localized or throughout the knee and an extremely common complaint by young adults as well as old people. Knee pain is always associated with restricted Range Of Motion. Knee joint is one of the most important joint in our body which bears most of the weight of the body.

It is supported by tendons, ligaments, muscles and joint cartilage which give stability to the joint. The location of knee pain and intensity can very depending on the structure which is involved and the intensity of the joint pain can vary from minor dull aching to severe pain.

When we could fix it activities “Why does knee pain rule your life"
Common causes of knee pain Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a form of arthritis. Sometimes called degenerative joint disease or degenerative arthritis. Osteoarthritis is a most common joint inflammatory condition. The joint is covered by a cartilage which provide smooth and gliding surface in joint motion and act as a cushion between the bones. In OA the cartilage breaks down causing pain, swelling and restricted range of motion. OA increases by time due to continuous wear and tear in the joint. It is of two types

Primary arthritis is result of natural ageing process of the joint not associated with any injuries or disease. With aging cartilage begins to degenerate causing friction between bones leading to pain, stiffness, and loss of joint movements.

Secondary arthritis is caused by the any trauma, injury and disease or condition that can lead to pain and restricted joint range of motion which includes obesity repeated injuries or surgeries of the joint structure, abnormal structure , diabetes and other hormonal structure.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Many runners know this feeling: a sharp pain on the outside of the knee. At first, it only occurs when you run, but later you also feel it when you climb the stairs or even when you walk.Repetitive friction on iliotibial band due to muscle imbalance, excessive running or inappropriate training method results in pain on lateral side of the knee especially in stairs.

Runner's Knee

The main complaint among those with runner’s knee is pain either underneath or on each side of the kneecap. Other symptoms include swelling of the knees, increased pain after exerting the knee, popping sensations and a grinding noise. Runner’s knee is a very common injury caused by improper hip and foot placement while running. Weak quads, hamstrings or hip abductors can all cause knee discomfort. 

Chondromalacia patella

The most common causes of knee problems in young adults, especially females caused by cartilage damage back line of the knee cap , muscle imbalances altered biomechanics and overuse results pain in front of the knee specially after sitting for a long periods.

Bursitis

Knee bursitis is caused by inflammation of a bursa - small fluid filled sacs that lie between bones and muscles/tendons to prevent irritation. Excessive friction from activities such as jumping, running or muscle tightness can lead to swelling of the bursa which leads to pain.

Tendinitis

Pain in the front of the knee that is made worse when climbing, taking stairs, or walking up an incline

Meniscus tear

Menisci provide both space and cushion for the knee joint a rupture in one or more of the cartilage in the knee can leads to knee pain.

Torn ligament

Tear in one of the four ligaments in the knee is a most common sports injuries — the most commonly injured ligament is the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and can also occurs in Posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL), medial collateral ligaments (MCL), and lateral collateral ligament.

Arthritis of knee

Arthritic knee can develop from daily activities that put pressure on the knee cap such as: Kneeling, Squaring, and Climbing.

Most common complain in knee pain

1. Redness an discomfort

2. Stiffness and Swelling

3. Inability to move the knee properly

4. Difficulty in walking

5. Popping or crackling noises

6. Mostly pain over the front , medial and lateral aspect of knee

7. Difficulty in walking upstairs and downstairs

8. Weakness

9. Unable to bend the knee

10. Limping due to discomfort

 The Symptoms of the knee may be mild to severe depend on the complexity of the condition or injury.

Steps to follow in Knee pain and swelling

RICE :- therapy is very useful in treating acute knee pain or especially for the athletes who suffered from any kind of injury during sports activities

Rest :- Rest the joint and take a break of 10 - 15 minutes.

Ice :- Applying ice can help in reducing pain and inflammation. Apply ice for 10- 15 mins 3 times a day

Compress :- A compression bandage can help in reducing swelling as well as keep the joint aligned

Elevate :- Elevation can help in reducing the swelling and resting of the knee.

Practice Stretching and strengthening exercises.

Note :- After RICE therapy pain does not subside than visit a PHYSIOTHERAPIST who is well trained can diagnose and treat your knee and will teach you the appropriate exercise to practice at home

How to prevent the knee pain

1. Stop doing exercise if you feel pain in your knees.

2. Always do warm up before exercise and cool down afterwards.

3. Wear shoes that is fit well and provide enough support

4. If you are obese then start workout to drop some pounds so there is less stress on your knee joint.

5. Keep your thigh muscles strong with regular stretching and strengthening exercises. Avoid running on hard surfaces.

6. Avoid twisting your knees.

7. Wear protective sports equipment during any sports activity.

Neck & Back Pain

Pain in neck and back occurs, may be localized in area or widespread area or some times refers into arms and legs.

Mostly occurs due to repeated stress on muscles, ligaments , bones and joints over a period of time & may also occur acutely due to some undue stress & trauma.

Mostly occurs due to repeated stress on muscles, ligaments , bones and joints over a period of time & may also occur acutely due to some undue stress & trauma.

Most common causes :-

1. Poor posture- repeated stressful activity, over use of muscles , long hours sitting on computer and improper weight lifting.

2. Injury or trauma

3. Poor nutrition's

4. Muscles spasm , tightness or weakness

5. Ligamentous sprain or strain .

6. Slip disc, disc degenerations.

7. Obesity.

Symptoms of neck and back pain:-

1. Severe or dull , burning or sharp pin pricking pain over a local point or a broad area.

2. muscle tightness, difficulty in moving turning over in the bed.

3. Sharp and shooting pain radiating down in the arm and legs.

4. Numbness and tingling sensation in the arms and legs.

5. Headache and vertigo

6. Consistent pain throughout the day increased after any stressful activity.

7. Feeling of weakness in the arms and legs

8. nvolvement of bowel & bladder control.

9. Advice to reduce back and neck pain and to prevent injuries

Maintain Good Posture people working on computer either in the office or at home for more than 7to 8 hours every day so choose your workstation which is ergonomically correct. And avoid long hour sitting continuously not more than 20 to 30 minutes take frequent breaks stretch your neck, back and shoulder and take few steps around. improve your posture while working on computer sit straight if needed use back support , foot supported on the floor and screen should be at your eye level. Posture should be relaxed , balanced and stable while sitting , standing or walking.

Lifting weight While lifting heavy weights maintain your correct posture always bend your knees and hips while keeping the back straight and hold the object close to your body. Avoid twisting of your back because poor technique can lead to muscle strain or pain.

Exercise Always perform some good form of exercise like stretching and strengthening to maintain muscles strengthen and flexible.

Water intake increase water intake to hydrate the muscle tissue. Sports – before any kind of sports activity take out some time to warm up your body and to activate the muscular system and always perform stretching after sports.

Texting Avoid to much use of mobile phone for texting it brings your head forward and create unnecessary pressure on your neck, shoulder and spine.

Sleeping Always use firm mattress and a thin pillow to maintain the curvature of the spine.

Driving Always keep your hand low on steering to avoid shoulder strain and relax your elbows.

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